Showing posts with label Uji Karakteristik B3. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Uji Karakteristik B3. Show all posts

Thursday, 5 October 2017

Screening Polymerization Potential Limbah

0 comments


Ruang Lingkup
Prosedur ini meliputi penaksiran potensi polimerisasi limbah. Prosedur ini dapat digunakan untuk limbah cair, lumpur, semi-padat, dan padat.

Prosedur pengujian ini dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi potensi polimerisasi berbahaya dari limbah yang mengandung atau dicurigai mengandung iso sianat, seperti metilen bis-phenisosianat, metilen diisosianat (MDI), atau toluene diisosianat (TDI).


Prinsip
Reaktifitas limbah ditetapkan dengan penambahan sejumlah sampel ke dalam trietilamin yang berjumlah sama dengan sampel dan pengamatan semua tanda terjadinya reaksi, seperti kenaikan temperature, pelepasan gas, pembentukan gel atau polimerisasi.


Peralatan
1. Beaker atau tabung reaksi

2. Pipet tetes yang dapat dibuang

3. Batang pengaduk gelas

4. Mixer vortex, sebagai alternatif

5. Termometer, 20 hingga 110 oC, dengan ketelitian 0.5 oC


Reagen
Trietilamin, (CH3)N


Prosedur Kerja
1. Tempatkan kira-kira 2 ml sampel ke dalam beaker atau tabung reaksi, dan ukur temperatur sampel

2. Tambahkan kira-kira 2 ml trietilenamin ke dalam sampel dan aduk hingga homogen menggunakan batang pengaduk gelas atau dengan menggunakan mixer vortex.

3. Lanjutkan dengan memonitor temperature campuran selama beberapa menit. Amati dan catat semua tanda terjadinya reaksi, seperti pelepasan gas, asap, penghangusan, pengendapan, pembentukan gel, polimerisasi, atau pembakaran.

4. Jika terdapat salah satu tanda terjadinya reaksi di atas yang teramati, maka sampel bersifat reaktif dan tidak lolos pengujian.


Referensi

ASTM D5058-90

Thursday, 25 August 2016

Screening Bahan Organik berhalogen dalam limbah

0 comments


TUJUAN

Prosedur ini digunakan untuk mendeteksi keberadaan halogen (klorida, florida, bromide, dan iodida) di dalam senyawa organik.

Thursday, 16 June 2016

Screening Water Reactivity Limbah

0 comments


1. Tujuan

Prosedur ini digunakan untuk menguji potensi reaksi berbahaya limbah bila bercampur dengan air.

2. Prinsip Analisis

2.1 Air dan limbah dicampur dengan perbandingan kira-kira 10:1. Pelepasan panas, jika memungkinkan, diukur dengan termometer.

2.2 Kelarutan jenis dan perbedaan densitas yang jelas (jika tidak bercampur) diamati pada saat itu juga.


3. Peralatan

3.1 Beaker atau tabung reaksi

3.2 Pipet, volume 5 ml

3.3 Spatula

3.4 Termometer, 20 hingga 110 C, atau yang setara dengan ketelitian 0.5 C.

3.5 Mixer Vortex


4. Pereaksi

4.1 Aquabidest


5. Prosedur

5.1 Simpan termometer di dalam air pada suhu kamar hingga siap digunakan. Catat temperature air.

5.2 Tempatkan sejumlah kecil (kira-kira 10 ml) air ke dalam beaker atau tabung reaksi.

5.3 Masukkan kira-kira 1 ml limbah ke dalam beaker atau tabung dan aduk baik-baik dengan menggunakan mixer vortex. Perhatikan setiap reaksi ekstrim, asap atau gas dan setiap endapan atau emulsi, dan catat hasil pengamatan.

5.4 Jika terjadi reaksi seperti yang tersebut di atas maka limbah tidak lolos pengujian kesesuaian dengan air.

5.5 Jika sudah pasti bahwa tidak terjadi reaksi ekstrim, dengan cepat setelah langkah 5.4 tempatkan termometer ke dalam beaker atau tabung reaksi dan catat setiap perubahan temperatur, menaik (+) atau menurun (-).

5.6 Beberapa reaksi dapat terjadi dengan siklus tertentu atau dengan percepatan. Biarkan adukan sampel selama 5 hingga 10 menit, lalu amati dan catat lagi temperaturnya.

5.7 Jika tidak ada reaksi teramati dan tidak ada perubahan temperatur yang berarti, limbah dinyatakan lolos pengujian kesesuaian dengan air.

5.8 Laporkan kelarutan dan perbedaan densitas sampel sebagai dapat larut, tidak dapat larut (lebih ringan), tidak dapat larut (lebih berat), dapat larut sebagian dan tidak dapat larut karena lebih ringan dan lebih berat sekaligus.


6. Referensi

ASTM D5058

Thursday, 26 May 2016

Screening Kandungan Oksidator dalam Limbah

0 comments


1. Prinsip Analisis

Sejumlah kecil sampel diletakkan pada kertas kanji kalium iodide (KI-Starch Paper). Warna biru gelap yang muncul pada kertas dan merupakan hasil oksidasi kalium iodide menjadi iodine dengan adanya kanji, menunjukkan keberadaan oksidator.

2. Peralatan

2.1 Beaker atau tabung reaksi

2.2 Pipet atau pipet tetes.

2.3 Lembaran kertas kanji Kalium iodide (KI-starch papaer)


3. Reagents

3.1 Larutan hydrogen peroksida, H2O2, 3%

3.2 Asam nitrat, 1:9
Tambahkan satu bagian volume asam nitrat (HNO3, sg. 1.42 g/cm3) ke dalam sembilan bagian volume air.


4. Prosedur

4.1 Sampel berair

4.1.1 Jatuhkan setetes sampel di atas selembar kertas kanji KI menggunakan pipet atau pipet tetes, dan catat perubahan warna.


4.2 Sampel tidak berair (mis. Padat, semi padat, lumpur, dll.)

4.2.1 Satu hingga lima gram sampel dibuat slurry dalam beaker dengan menggunakan sejumlah air suling yang sesuai.

4.2.2 Dengan menggunakan pipet atau pipet tetes, jatuhkan setetes slurry di atas selembar kertas kanji KI.


4.3 Semua hasil sampel harus diuji dengan dibandingkan terhadap lembaran uji quality control dan blanko untuk menentukan pembacaan positif/ negatif.



5. Referensi

ASTM D4981

Saturday, 7 May 2016

Screening Radioaktif pada limbah

0 comments


1. Prinsip Analisis

Pemindai atau detektor ditempatkan pada jarak 6 mm dari permukaan sampel selama sedikitnya 5 detik, reaksi yang terdengar dan terlihat dari alat survey meter dicatat.


2. Peralatan

2.1 Survey Meter, “Ludlum” Model-3

2.2 Pemindai (detektor), dengan kepekaan terhadap radiasi gamma

2.3 Sumber pengujian radioaktif tingkat rendah seperti Am 241



3. Prosedur

3.1 Ubah tombol range ke BAT. Jarum penunjuk skala akan bergerak ke posisi pengecekan baterai "BAT TEST" pada skala. Jika Jarum penunjuk tidak bereaksi, cek ulang apakah baterai memiliki polaritas yang sesuai.



3.2 Set range instrument ke x100. Putar saklar alarm bunyi "AUD" ke posisi "ON". Putar saklar "F atau S" beralih ke "F".

3.2 Lepaskan pemindai/detektor dari braket logam di atas alat.

3.3 Buka penutup wadah sampel. Tempatkan detektor dalam jarak 6 mm dari permukaan sampel sedikitnya selama 5 detik. Alarm akan berbunyi dan jarum penunjuk akan bergerak sesuai kadar radioaktif yang terdeteksi.

3.4 Gerakkan tombol range ke skala yang lebih rendah sesuai yang dibutuhkan untuk pembacaan.

3.5 Metoda alternatif adalah dengan menuangkan sedikitnya 5 gr (5ml) sampel ke dalam pinggan timbang. Tempatkan detektor dalam jarak 6 mm dari permukaan sampel selama sedikitnya 5 detik. Ubah tombol pengatur sesuai yang dibutuhkan untuk melakukan pembacaan.

3.6 Catat hasilnya sebagai “di bawah ambang batas” atau “di atas ambang batas”.


4. Referensi

Ludlum Model 3 Survey Meter, Instruction Manual

ASTM D 5928

Monday, 25 April 2016

Screening Sulfida dalam limbah

0 comments


1. Prinsip

1.1 Asamkan sejumlah sampel limbah. Jika terdapat sulfide di dalam limbah, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) akan terbentuk.

1.2 Jika terdapat hidrogen sulfida di dalam sampel limbah, kertas timbal asetat akan berubah warna menjadi coklat keperakan atau hitam.


2. Bahan

2.1 Beaker atau tabung reaksi.

2.2 Batang pengaduk

2.3 Kertas timbal asetat (Pb acetate paper)

2.4 HCl, 1:1
Tambahkan 1 bagian volume HCl (HCl sp. Gr1. 19) kepada 1 bagian volume air.

2.5 Larutan standar Natrium Sulfida
Larutkan 1.0 g natrium sulfida (Na2S) ke dalam air dan encerkan hingga tepat 1 Ltr.
1 ml = 1 mg Na2S


3. Prosedur

3.1 Tempatkan 5 hingga 10 gr sampel ke dalam beaker. Jika sampel tersebut berupa padatan, basahi dengan kira-kira 15 ml air.

3.2 Basahi selembar kertas timbal asetat dan tempelkan di dinding beaker di atas sampel.

3.3 Perlahan dan hati-hati ubah pH menjadi di bawah 2.0 dengan larutan HCl 1:1.

3.4 Aduk larutan.

3.5 Warna coklat keperakan hingga hitam pada kertas timbale asetat menunjukkan keberadaan sulfide dan harus dicatat sebagi positif. Bandingkan warna yang teramati dengan blanko dan larutan standar.

3.6 Tidak adanya perubahan warna pada kertas timbal asetat dilaporkan sebagai negatif.


4. Referensi

ASTM D4978

Wednesday, 16 March 2016

Paint Filter Test

0 comments


Summary of method
Place a predetermined amount of waste in a paint filter. If any portion of the waste passes through and drops from the filter within five minutes,the waste is deemed to be liquid waste.


Apparatus and materials
1. Conical paint filter: Mesh number 60 +/- 5%; available at local paint stores.
2. Glass funnel: If the paint filter containing the waste cannot sustain its weight on the ring     stand, then support it with a fluted glass funnel or a glass funnel with a mouth large enough     to allow at least 25 mm of the filter mesh to protrude. The fluting or large open mouth will     support the paint filter yet not interfere with the movement, to the cylinder or beaker, of     the liquid that passes through the filter mesh.
3. Ring stand and ring or tripod.
4. Cylinder or beaker.


Reagents
None.


Sample collection, preservation and handling
Use a 100 ml or 100 g representative sample for the test. If it is not possible to obtain a sample of 100 ml or 100 g that is sufficiently representative of the waste, use larger samples in multiples of 100 ml or 100 g. However, divide the larger sample into 100 ml or 100 g portions and test each portion separately. If any portion is liquid waste, the entiresample is considered to be liquid waste. If the sample is measured volumetrically, then it should lack major air spaces or voids.


Procedure
1. Assemble test apparatus as shown in Figure 1.

2. Place sample in the filter in a funnel if necessary (see above). If the sample is of such light     density that it overflows the filter, extend the sides upward by taping filter paper to the     inside of the filter and above the mesh. Help the sample settle into the paint filter by     lightly tapping the sides of the filter as it is being filled.




3. In order to assure uniformity and standardisation ofthe test, cut material that does not     conform to the shape of the paint filter into small pieces and pourit into the filter. Reduce     particles to be tested to a size smaller than 1 cm (ie can pass through a 9.5 mm standard     sieve.) Do not grind materials as this can destroy the integrity of the sample and produce     many fine particles that would not normally be present.

4. For brittle materials larger than 1 cm that do not conform to the filter, light crushing to     reduce oversize particles is acceptable if it is not practicable to cut the material.

5. Allow the sample to drain for five minutes into the cylinder.

6. If any portion of the sample collects in the cylinder or beaker in the five-minute period then     the material is deemed to be liquid waste.

Sunday, 14 February 2016

Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)

0 comments


SECTION A - BOTTLE EXTRACTION PROCEDURE


1. SCOPE AND APPLICATION

    The TCLP is designed to determine the mobility of both organic and inorganic analytes
    present in liquid, solid and multiphasic wastes. The bottle extraction method applies only
    to non-volatile analytes.


2. APPARATUS AND MATERIALS

2.1 Agitation Apparatus

      2.1.1 Tumbler to meet specifications listed in USEPA 1311.



2.2 Extraction Vessels

      2.2.1 2 litre glass TCLP bottles

      2.2.2 Teflon lined lids
      2.2.3 White plumbers tape.

2.3 Filtration Devices

      2.3.1 Millipore Vacuum filtration apparatus

2.4 Filters

      2.4.1 0.6 - 0.8 µm TCLP glass fibre filter paper (142 mm)

2.5 pH Meter

      2.5.1 The meter should be accurate to ± 0.05 units at 25 oC

2.6 Analytical Balance

      2.6.1 Any balance accurate to within ± 0.01 g may be used (all weight measurements are to
               be within ± 0.1 g).

2.7 Beaker or similar container

      2.7.1 Glass or plastic, 100 mL

2.8 Watchglass (suitable size to cover beaker or similar container)

2.9 Magnetic Stirrer


3. REAGENTS

3.1 Hydrochloric acid (HCl), 32 %, AR

3.2 Hydrochloric acid, 1 M: Add 100 mL of 32 % HCl (3.1) to 800 mL of DI water, mix well, then
      bulk up to 1 L.

3.3 Deionised (DI) Water

3.4 Glacial Acetic Acid, AR. Use in a fume cupboard. Where this is not possible keep sealed as
      much as possible when using on the bench.

3.5 Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), AR

3.6 Nitric Acid, AR

3.7 Extraction Fluid #1: Prepare by mixing 4 L (using a measuring cylinder) of DI water, 22.8 mL
      (using burette) glacial acetic acid (3.4) and 10.25 - 10.30 g of NaOH (3.5). If required, this
      solution must be adjusted to a pH of 4.88 - 4.98 using either NaOH (3.5) or acetic acid (3.4).
      Record this pH.

3.8 Extraction Fluid #2: Prepare by mixing 4 L (using a measuring cylinder) of DI water with 22.8
      mL (using burette) of glacial acetic acid (3.4). The pH of the solution must be 2.83 - 2.93.
      Adjust pH if necessary with NaOH (3.5) or acetic acid (3.4). Record this pH.


4. PRELIMINARY EVALUATIONS

4.1 Determination of Percent Solid

      The percent solid is defined as that fraction of a waste sample from which no liquid may be
      forced out.

      4.1.1 If the waste will obviously yield no liquid when subjected to pressure (that is: it is
               100 % solid) proceed to section 4.2.

      4.1.2 Record the following information in the Miscellaneous Workbook. If the sample is
               liquid or liquid/solid a percent solid determination is required. This is achieved using
               a vacuum filtration device. The first step is to preweigh the filter paper and the
               container which will receive the filtrate. A subsample of the waste is then weighed
               out (a minimum of 100 g) and the weight recorded. This subsample is then
               quantitatively transferred to the filtration device and vacuum applied gradually.
               When continued vacuum does not result in any additional filtrate within any 2 minute
               period, stop the filtration.


      4.1.3 Record the weight of the liquid and solid phases. Calculate the percent solids as
               follows:

                                             weight of solid
               Percent solids = ----------------------------- x 100 %
                                             total weight of waste

               Retain both liquid and solid obtained from this determination.

      4.1.4 If the percent solids is equal to or greater than 0.5 %, the liquid if any, is separated
               from the solid phase and stored for later analysis (see 7.4.). Proceed to section 4.2
               for the solid phase. If the percent of solids is less than 0.5 %, the liquid phase, after
               filtration through a 0.6 - 0.8 µm glass fibre filter, is defined as the TCLP extract.

4.2 Determination of Particle Size Reduction

      Particle size reduction is required unless the solid is smaller than 1 cm in its narrowest
      dimension. If the particle size is larger than described above, prepare the solid portion for
      extraction by crushing, cutting or grinding the waste to a suitable particle size.


5. DETERMINATION AND PREPARATION OF APPROPRIATE EXTRACTION FLUID

5.1 Transfer 5.0 g of the solid phase (after particle size reduction, if required) to a beaker. Add
      96.5 mL of DI water and record the pH of the solution whilst stirring vigorously. If the pH is
      < 5 use extraction fluid #1. If the pH is > 5, proceed to section 5.2.

5.2 Add 3.5 mL, using a 10 mL graduated dispensing pipette, of 1 M HCl to the solution, cover       with a watchglass and heat at 50 oC ± 5ÂșC (on a water bath) for 10 minutes. Allow to cool
      and record the pH again. If the pH is < 5 use extraction fluid #1. If the pH is > 5 use
      extraction fluid #2.

      Note: Discard this solution - do not use in extraction procedure.


6. EXTRACTION PROCEDURE

6.1 Procedure with regard to percentage of solid

      6.1.1 If the waste is 100 % solid: Weigh out 100 g of prepared waste. Transfer quantitatively
               to a glass TCLP bottle (2 litre capacity) and fill bottle with 2 L (using a measuring
               cylinder) of the appropriate extraction fluid. If less than 100 grams of sample is
               available, then the amount of soil that is available is used, and the volume of
               extraction fluid used is scaled down accordingly. e.g.: if 80 grams of soil is used, then
               1.6 L of extraction fluid is used. This information is recorded in the TCLP workbook.


      6.1.2 If the waste has a mixture of solid and liquid but has more than 0.5 % solid, take the
               filtered and prepared sample (from 4.1 and 4.2) and the filter used to separate the
               liquid from the solid phase (from 4.1), and place into a TCLP bottle.

      Determine the amount of extraction fluid to add to the extraction vessel as follows:

                                                       20 x percent solids (4.1.3) x weight of waste filtered (4.1.2)
Volume of extraction fluid (mL) = -------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                          100

      Slowly add this amount of extraction fluid to the TCLP bottle.

      NOTE 1: Ensure that the amount of extraction fluid is going to be sufficient to undertake
      the analysis. If not, use more filtered sample.

      NOTE 2: For further explanation and details, see USEPA 1311, Section 7.2.

6.2 Seal bottle using a Teflon-lined lid and white plumbers tape.

6.3 A blank (containing only extraction fluid) must be run with each batch.

6.4 Waste is extracted by tumbling at 30 ± 2 rpm, for 18 ± 2 hours on the tumbler, at 19 - 25 OC.
      The temperature of the room must be monitored, using a max. - min. thermometer. If the
      temperature falls outside this range then a comment should be made when reporting the
      results.


7. FINAL FILTRATION PROCEDURE

7.1 After tumbling, the waste should be allowed to settle (while standing upright) for at least
      2 hours.

7.2 The supernatant is poured onto the TCLP filter and gravity filtered until no additional liquid
      passes through the filter in any 2 minute interval. A gentle pressure of 10 psi is then
      applied until air moves through the filter. If this does not occur, and no additional liquid
      passes through the filter in any 2 minute interval, the pressure is increased in 10-psi
      increments. This continues until air flows through the filter, or liquid ceases to flow (in a
      2 minute period) at 50 psi.
      Note: Instantaneous application of high pressure can degrade the glass filter and may cause
      premature plugging.


7.3 If the waste contained no initial liquid phase, the filtered liquid material obtained from 7.2
      is defined as the TCLP extract.

7.4 If compatible (multiphases will not result on combination), combine the filtered liquid       resulting from section 7.2 with the initial liquid phase of the waste obtained in section       4.1.2. This combined liquid is defined as the TCLP extract.

7.5 If the initial liquid phase of the waste obtained from section 4.1.2 is not or may not be       compatible with the filtered liquid resulting from section 7.2, do not combine these
      liquids. Analyse the liquids, collectively defined as the TCLP extract, and combine
      the results mathematically. For further explanation see USEPA 1311, section 7.2.14.

7.6 The filtrate is collected in an amber solvent washed glass bottle if organic analysis is       required, a nitric preserved plastic bottle if metals are required, or a natural plastic bottle
      for other analytes. The extracts are stored in the cold room for further analysis.

7.7 The TCLP filter must be washed and the filter paper changed between each sample. If       metals are being analysed for, the filters and filter paper must be rinsed with 10 % nitric
      acid before use.

7.8 The pH of the final extract is recorded.




SECTION B - ZERO - HEADSPACE EXTRACTION PROCEDURE


1. SCOPE AND APPLICATION

    This method applies only to waste being tested for volatile analytes. This procedure is
    applicable to the extraction of WAD and total cyanide and those volatile organic compounds
    listed in Table 1 of USEPA 1311.

    The Zero-Headspace Vessel (ZHE) allows for the initial liquid / solid separation, extraction,
    and final filtration to occur without opening of the vessel.


2. APPARATUS AND MATERIALS

2.1 Zero-Headspace Extraction Vessel (ZHE).

      2.1.1 To meet specifications listed in USEPA 1311.

2.2 ZHE Extract Collection Devices: TEDLAR bags or glass, stainless steel or PTFE gas tight       syringes.

2.3 ZHE Extraction Fluid Transfer Devices; Any device capable of transferring the extraction       fluid into the ZHE without changing the nature of the extraction fluid is acceptable.
      e.g. a positive displacement or peristaltic pump, a gas tight syringe, pressure filtration
      unit, or other ZHE device.

2.4 Filters

      2.4.1 0.6 - 0.8 µm TCLP glass fibre filter paper (142 mm)

2.5 pH Meter
      2.5.1 The meter should be accurate to + 0.05 units at 25 oC

2.6 Analytical Balance

      2.6.1 Any balance accurate to within + 0.01 g may be used (all weight measurements are to
               be within ± 0.1 g).

2.7 Beaker or similar container

      2.7.1 Glass or plastic, 100 mL

2.8 Watchglass (suitable size to cover beaker or similar container)

2.9 Magnetic Stirrer



3. REAGENTS

3.1 Ultra High Purity (UHP) Water

3.2 Glacial Acetic Acid, AR. Use in a fume cupboard. Where this is not possible keep sealed       as much as possible when using on the bench.

3.3 Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), AR

3.4 Extraction Fluid #1: Prepare by mixing 4 L (using a measuring cylinder) of DI water, 22.8 mL
      (using burette) glacial acetic acid and 10.25 - 10.30 g of NaOH. If required, this solution
      must be adjusted to a pH of 4.88 - 4.98 using either NaOH or acetic acid. Record this pH.


4. PRELIMINARY EVALUATIONS

4.1 Determination of Percent Solid

      TAKE ANY SUBSAMPLES FOR TOTAL SOLIDS DETERMINATION RAPIDLY FROM A COLD SAMPLE
      TO AVOID THE LOSS OF VOLATILES.

      THE SAMPLE USED FOR THE SOLIDS DETERMINATION IS NOT TO BE USED FOR ZHE ANALYSIS.

      The percent solid is defined as that fraction of a waste sample from which no liquid may be
      forced out.

      4.1.1 If the waste will obviously yield no liquid when subjected to pressure (that is: it is
               100 % solid) proceed to section 4.2.

      4.1.2 Record the following information in the Miscellaneous Workbook. If the sample is
               liquid or liquid/solid a percent solid determination is required. This is achieved using
               a vacuum filtration device. The first step is to preweigh the filter paper and the
               container which will receive the filtrate. A subsample of the waste is then weighed
               out (a minimum of 100 g) and the weight recorded. This subsample is then
               quantitatively transferred to the filtration device and vacuum applied gradually.
               When continued vacuum does not result in any additional filtrate within any 2 minute
               period, stop the filtration.

      4.1.3 Record the weight of the liquid and solid phases. Calculate the percent solids
               as follows:

                                             weight of solid
               Percent solids = ----------------------------- x 100 %
                                             total weight of waste


4.2 Determination of Particle Size Reduction

      Particle size reduction is required unless the solid is smaller than 1 cm in its narrowest
      dimension. If the particle size is larger than described above, prepare the solid portion for
      extraction by crushing, cutting or grinding the waste to a suitable particle size.

      IF PARTICLE SIZE REDUCTION IS REQUIRED, THIS IS TO BE CARRIED OUT ON THE SAMPLE
      IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO EXTRACTION.


5. EXTRACTION PROCEDURE

5.1 Pre-weigh the evacuated filtrate collection container and set aside.

5.2 Place the ZHE piston within the body of the ZHE. Adjust the piston within the ZHE body to
      a height that will minimise the distance the piston will have to move once the ZHE is
      charged with sample. Secure the gas inlet / outlet flange (bottom flange) onto the ZHE
      body in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Secure the glass fibre filter
      between the support screens and set aside. Set the liquid inlet / outlet flange (top flange)
      aside.

5.3 If the waste is 100 % solid, weigh out 25 g of the waste.

5.4 If the percent of solids is less than 0.5 %, the liquid phase, after filtration, is defined as
      the TCLP extract. Filter enough sample so that that the amount of filtrate will support all
      the volatile analysis required. For wastes containing ≥ 0.5 % dry solids (ref 4.1.3), use the
      % solids information to determine the optimum sample size to charge into the ZHE.

5.5 For wastes containing < 5 % solids, weigh out a 500 g subsample and record the weight. 5.6 For wastes containing ≥ 0.5 % solids, determine the amount of waste to charge into the ZHE       as follows:                                                                      25       Weight of waste to charge to ZHE = --------------- x 100                                                              percent solids 5.7 Weigh out a subsample (cold) of the waste of the appropriate size and record the weight. 5.8 Carry out any particle size reduction. 5.9 Transfer quantitatively, as quickly as possible the entire sample to the ZHE. Secure the        filter and support screens onto the top flange of the device and secure the top flange to        the ZHE body in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. Tighten all ZHE fittings        and place the device in the vertical position (gas inlet / outlet flange on the bottom).        Do not attach the extraction collection device to the top plate.        NOTE: If > 1 % of waste material has adhered to the container used to transfer the sample,
       determine the weight of the residue and subtract it from the initial weight.

5.10 Attach a gas line to the gas inlet / outlet valve (bottom flange) and with the liquid inlet        / outlet valve (top flange) open, begin applying gentle pressure of 1 -10 psi (or more if
       necessary) to force all the headspace slowly out of the ZHE device. At the first appearance
       of liquid from the liquid inlet / outlet valve, quickly close the valve and discontinue
       pressure. If filtration of the waste at 4 OC reduces the amount of expressed liquid over
       what would be expressed at room temperature, then allow the sample to warm to room
       temperature in the device before filtering.
       If the waste is 100 % solid, slowly increase the pressure to a maximum of 50 psi to force
       most of the headspace out of the devise. Proceed to 5.15.

5.11 Attach the evacuated pre-weighed filtrate collection container to the liquid inlet / outlet        valve and open the valve. Begin applying gentle pressure of 1 - 10 psi to force the liquid
       phase of the sample into the filtrate collection container. If no additional liquid has
       passed through the filter in any 2 minute interval, slowly increase the pressure in 10-psi
       increments to a maximum of 50 psi. After each incremental increase of 10 psi, if no
       additional liquid has passed through the filter in any 2 minute interval, proceed to the
       next 10-psi increment. When liquid flow has ceased such that continued pressure filtration
       at 50 psi does not result in any additional filtrate within a 2 minute period stop the
       filtration. Close the liquid inlet / outlet valve, discontinue pressure to the piston, and
       disconnect and weigh the filtrate collection container.

       Note: Instantaneous application of high pressure can degrade the glass filter and may
       cause premature plugging.

5.12 The material in the ZHE is defined as the solid phase of the waste and the filtrate is        defined as the liquid phase.

       Note: Some wastes, such as oily wastes and some paint wastes, will obviously contain
       some material that appears to be a liquid. Even after applying pressure filtration, this
       material will not filter. In this case, the material within the filtration device is defined as
       a solid and is carried through the TCLP extraction as a solid.

5.13 If the original waste contained < 0.5 % dry solids, this filtrate is defined as the TCLP        extract and is analysed directly.

5.14 The liquid phase may now be either analysed immediately or stored at 4 OC under minimal        headspace conditions until time of analysis. Determine the weight of solid to add to the
       ZHE as follows:
                                                               100 x 500 mL (Volume of extraction fluid)
       weight of waste filtered (4.1.2) = -----------------------------------------------------
                                                                             20 x percent solids (4.1.3)


5.15 With the ZHE in the vertical position, attach a line from the extraction fluid reservoir to        the liquid inlet / outlet valve. The line used shall contain fresh extractant fluid and should
       be preflushed with fluid to eliminate any air pockets in the line. Release the gas pressure
       on the ZHE piston (from the gas inlet /outlet valve), open the liquid inlet / outlet valve,
       and begin transferring extraction fluid (by pumping or similar means) into the ZHE.
       Continue pumping extraction fluid into the ZHE until the appropriate amount of fluid has
       been introduced into the device.

5.16 After the extraction fluid has been added, immediately close the liquid inlet / outlet
       valve and disconnect the extraction fluid line. Check the ZHE to ensure that all the valves
       are in their closed positions. Manually rotate the device in an end over end fashion 2 or
       3 times. Reposition the ZHE in the vertical position with the liquid inlet / outlet valve on
       top. Pressurise the ZHE to 5-10 psi (if necessary) and slowly open the liquid inlet / outlet
       valve to bleed out any headspace that may have been introduced due to the addition of
       extraction fluid. This bleeding shall be done quickly and shall be stopped at the first
       appearance of liquid from the valve. Re-pressurise the ZHE with 5 -10 psi and check all ZHE
       fittings to ensure that they are closed.

5.17 Place the ZHE in the rotary agitation apparatus (if it is not already there) and rotate at        30 ± 2 rpm for 18 ± 2 hours at 21 - 25 OC.

5.18 After the 18  2 hour agitation period, check the pressure behind the ZHE piston by
       quickly opening and closing the gas inlet / outlet valve and noting the escape of gas. If the
       pressure has not been maintained (i.e. no gas release observed), the device is leaking.
       Check the ZHE for leaking as specified in Appendix 1 - Sect 4.2.1, and perform the
       extraction again with a new sample of waste. If the pressure within the device has been
       maintained, the material in the extractor vessel is once again separated into its
       component liquid and solid phases. If the waste contained an initial liquid phase, the
       liquid may be filtered directly into the same filtrate collection container holding the
       initial liquid phase of the waste. A separate filtrate collection container must be used if
       combining would create multiple phases, or there is not enough volume left within
       the filtrate
       collection container. Filter through the glass fibre filter, using the ZHE device as discussed
       in Sect 5.15. All extract shall be filtered and collected if the extract is multiphasic,
       or if the waste contained an initial liquid phase.

       NOTE: An in-line glass fibre filter may be used to filter the material within the ZHE if it is
       suspected that the glass fibre filter has been ruptured.

5.19 If the waste contained no initial liquid phase, the filtered liquid material obtained from        5.18 is defined as the TCLP extract.

5.20 If compatible (multiphases will not result on combination), combine the filtered liquid        resulting from section 5.18 with the initial liquid phase of the waste obtained in section
       5.12. This combined liquid is defined as the TCLP extract.

5.21 If the initial liquid phase of the waste obtained from section 5.12 is not or may not be        compatible with the filtered liquid resulting from section 5.18, do not combine these
       liquids. Analyse the liquids, collectively defined as the TCLP extract, and combine the
       results mathematically. For further explanation see Appendix 1, section 7.2.14.

5.22 Following the collection of the TCLP extract, the sample is prepared for analysis. Store        extract with minimal headspace at 4 OC.


6. REFERENCE

USEPA Method 1311

 

Sampling & Analisis Copyright © 2013
Theme Template by BTDesigner · Powered by Blogger